Our future: neohuman or posthuman?

Authors: Gubanov N.N., Cheremnykh L.G. Published: 16.10.2023
Published in issue: #5(103)/2023  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2023-5-866  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Philosophy Science  
Keywords: neohuman, posthuman, humanism, radical transhumanism, moderate transhumanism, cybernetic immortality, digital existence

The paper presents the authors’ solution to the problem of establishing the final result in the human transhumanist transformations. There are two poles in the global transhumanist movement, i.e. the moderate and radical transhumanism. According to the first, the transhumanist transformations result in the appearance of a neohuman, who preserves the human essence despite alteration in the material carrier of this essence. His consciousness would ensure the main human values, including spiritual exaltation, creativity, love, justice, truth, beauty, and goodness. The paper shows that neohumans are able to become a higher stage of the human development, and continuity would exist between them, due to which humanism could be replaced by the moderate transhumanism (neohumanism) having the same core with humanism, but with a richer content compared to it. Radical transhumanists believe that as a result of transhumanistic transformations, a hypothetical creature would arise - a posthuman with a different essence than the modern man. The posthuman would have a worldview of radical transhumanism, which is fundamentally different from the humanism. It was proven that only radical transhumanism is incompatible with the humanism. This circumstance is not taken into account by the bioconservatives, who do not recognize the need to transform the human nature. Hypothetical options are considered in regard to a creature of the future: genetically modified and technically improved individual, nanocyborgized individual and virtual digital (incorporeal) individual. Doubt is expressed on expediency of incorporeal existence of an individual on the basis of impossibility to identify its system of motives. Conclusions are drawn that humanity would choose the path of moderate transhumanism. It would not agree to its own extinction, even at the cost of emergence of the intelligent being new species. The future of humanity is not a posthuman, but the neohuman, i.e. an individual with human essence and physical body.

[1] Bess M.D. Icarus 2.0: A historian’s perspective on human biological enhancement. Technology and Culture, 2008, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 114–126.
[2] Nesterov A.Yu. Problema cheloveka v svete ideologii evolyutsionnogo transgumanizma [The problem of man in light of the evolutionary transhumanism ideology]. In: Dubrovskiy D.I., ed. In: Globalnoe buduschee 2045. Konvergentnye tekhnologii (NBIKS) i Transgumanisticheskaya evolyutsiya [Global future 2045. Convergence technologies (NBICS) and transhumanism evolution]. Moscow, MBA Publ., 2013, pp. 183–192.
[3] Yudin B.G. Transgumanizm: supergumanizm ili antigumanizm? [Transhumanism: superhumanism or antihumanism?]. In: Maylenova F.G., ed. Bioetika i gumanitarnaya ekspertiza, vyp. 7 [Bioethics and humanitarian expertise, iss. 7]. Moscow, Institute of Philosophy RAS Publ., 2013, pр. 10–24.
[4] Huxley J. New Bottles for New Wine. London, Chatto & Windus, 1957, 318 р.
[5] Dubrovskiy D.I. Priroda cheloveka, antropologicheskiy krizis i kiberneticheskoe bessmertie [Human nature, anthropological crisis and cybernetic immortality]. In: Dubrovskiy D.I., ed. Globalnoe buduschee 2045. Konvergentnye tekhnologii (NBIKS) i Transgumanisticheskaya evolyutsiya [Global future 2045. Convergence technologies (NBICS) and transhumanism evolution]. Moscow, MBA Publ., 2013, pp. 237–252.
[6] Itskov D. Put k neochelovechestvu [Path to neohumanity]. Vzglyad. Delovaya Gazeta. Available at: https://vz.ru/opinions/2012/11/9/606449.html (accessed April 8, 2023).
[7] Manifest strategicheskogo obschestvennogo dvizheniya „Rossiya 2045“ [Manifest of the strategic social movement “Russia 2045]. Rossiya 2045. Strategicheskoe obshchestvennoe dvizhenie [Russia 2045. Strategic Social Movement]. Available at: http://2045.ru/people/expert/s/?page=871 (accessed June 28, 2023).
[8] Bostrom H. Chto takoe zagruzka? [What is a download?]. Available at: https://fil.wikireading.ru/62456 (accessed June 28, 2023).
[9] Dubrovskiy D.I. Kiberneticheskoe bessmertie. Fantastika ili nauchnaya problema? [Cyber immortality. Fantasy or scientific problem?]. Available at: https://iphras.ru/uplfile/ai/dubrovsky2.pdf (accessed June 28, 2023).
[10] Bostrom N. Superintelligence. Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014, 352 p. [In Russ.: Bostrom N. Iskusstvennyi intellekt. Etapy. Ugrozy. Strategii. Moscow, Mann, Ivanov i Ferber Publ., 2016, 496 p.].
[11] Pepperell R. The Posthuman Condition: Consciousness beyond the Brain. Bristol, Intellect Books Publ., 2003, 203 p.
[12] Graham E.L. Representations of the Post/Human: monsters, aliens and others in popular culture. Manchester, University Press, 2002, 259 p.
[13] Wolfe C. What is posthumanism? Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, 392 p
[14] Bostrom N. Chto takoe postchelovek? [What is a posthuman?]. Available at: https://fil.wikireading.ru/62451 (accessed June 28, 2023).
[15] Shilovskaya N.S. Ot obschestva gumanizma k obschestvu transgumanizma? [From humanistic to transhuman society?]. Filosofiya i obschestvo — Philosophy and society, 2013, no. 3, рр. 141–150.
[16] Kutyrev V.A. Kuda sdvigat gumanitarnyi vektor [Where to shift the humanities vector?]. Humanitarian vector, 2012, no. 3 (31), pp. 19–31.
[17] Popova A.V., Kiselevskaya L.E. Kontseptsiya postcheloveka — novyi diskurs XXI v. [The concept of a posthuman — new discourse in the XXI century]. Istoriya i sovremennost’ — History and modernity, 2018, no. 3, pp. 51–65.
[18] Razin A.V. Kompyuter i mozg: problema kvalia [Computer and mind: the problem of qualia]. Filosofiya i obschestvo — Philosophy and society, 2023, no. 1, pp. 42–56.