Cognitive specifics of the disciplinary structure of science (a philosophical and methodological analysis)

Authors: Kalinin E.Yu., Lyuskin M.B. Published: 22.03.2018
Published in issue: #3(65)/2018  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2018-3-509  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Philosophy Science  
Keywords: science, discipline, theory, worldview, thinking style, methodological analysis, post-classical rationality

Post-classical models of scientific knowledge have moved on from the diad of the theoretical and the empirical to the triad of experiment, theory and worldview, including style of scientific thinking, research program, paradigm, and the ideal of a scientific theory. Modern, post-classical scientific disciplines demonstrate a specific style of scientific thinking. We can illustrate this using a dynamic style of scientific thinking found in vibration and wave theory as an example. It includes the principle of analogy as its main constituent principle, leading to dialogism being fundamentally inherent in the structure of the theory; multiple interpretations being the norm, in turn, leads to increased reflection and an absence of dramatic breaks between normal and critical theory development stages.

[1] Ogurtsov A.P. Distsiplinarnaya struktura nauki: ee genezis i obosnovanie [Disciplinary structure of science: its genesis and validation]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1988, 256 p.
[2] Priroda biologicheskogo poznaniya [Nature of biological cognition]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1991, p. 165.
[3] Yudin E.G. Sistemnyy podkhod i printsip deyatelnosti [Systems theory and the principle of activity]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1978, 391 p.
[4] Karsaevskaya T.V. O spetsifike biologicheskogo poznaniya [On the specifics of biological cognition]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1987, pp. 18–33.
[5] Stepin V.S. Teoreticheskoe znanie [Theoretical knowledge]. Moscow, Progress-Traditsiya Publ., 2003, 744 p.
[6] Slavin A.V. Naglyadnyy obraz v strukture poznaniya [Visualisation in the structure of cognition]. Moscow, State Publishing House of Political Literature, 1971, pp. 98–107.
[7] Newton I. Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light. London, 1704, 416 p. [In Russ.: Newton I. Optika. Moscow, State Publishing House of Technical Literature, 1954, pp. 285–307].
[8] Stepin V.S. Struktura i evolyutsiya teoreticheskikh znaniy [Structure and evolution of theoretical knowledge]. Priroda nauchnogo poznaniya [Nature of scientific cognition]. Minsk, Belarusian State University Publ., 1979, pp. 179–258.
[9] Rubinshteyn S.L. Bytie i soznanie: o meste psikhicheskogo vo vseobshchey vzaimosvyazi yavleniy materialnogo mira [Being and consciousness: on the role of the mental in the universal connection of the material world phenomena]. Moscow, Academy of Sciences of the USSR Publ., 1957, p. 88.
[10] Rabinovich M.I., Trubetskov D.I. Vvedenie v teoriyu kolebaniy i voln [Introduction to vibration and wave theory]. Moscow, 1984, 560 p.
[11] Arshinov V.I. Sinergetika kak fenomen postneklassicheskoy nauki [Synergetics as a phenomenon of postnonclassical science]. Moscow, RAS Institute of Phi-losophy Publ., 1999, 200 p.