Political anthropology in the German classical philosophy

Authors: Zubov V.V. Published: 27.06.2023
Published in issue: #3(101)/2023  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2023-3-851  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Philosophy Science  
Keywords: German classical philosophy, political anthropology, ontology, gnoseology, ethics, Absolute

The paper considers political and anthropological views (views on a person as a participant in the political life) of the prominent representatives of the German classical philosophy, including Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. It presents political anthropology of the above-named philosophers in accordance with the deductive method in the scientific knowledge. First, general philosophical concepts and ideas (ontology, epistemology and ethics) are comprehended, then actual views on the place of a person in political reality and power relations are conceived. Definition of political anthropology is provided as a body of knowledge about a person in the context of his participation in politics, political processes, institutions and conflicts. It was concluded that the most prominent thinkers of the German classical philosophy did not establish a unified political and anthropological basis. Kant was not much interested in the political issues in comparison with the general philosophical problems. Fichte perceived political reality in the context of permanent struggle of the dichotomous duality, where “I” was opposed to “not-I”. Schelling assigned politics the role of a means of knowing the Absolute by intellectual intuition. Politics for Hegel was one of the stages of the Absolute Spirit self-motion, where the anthropological dimension seemed to be insignificant.

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