Pluralism of levels of scientific knowledge

Authors: Lebedev S.A., Koskov S.N. Published: 29.06.2021
Published in issue: #3(89)/2021  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2021-3-719  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Philosophy Science  
Keywords: science, levels of scientific knowledge, sensory knowledge, empirical knowledge, theoretical knowledge, metatheoretical knowledge

In the classical theory of scientific knowledge, only two levels of scientific knowledge were distinguished in any of the specific sciences — empirical and theoretical. In modern non-classical epistemology, four qualitatively different levels of scientific knowledge are already recognized: sensory, empirical, theoretical, and metatheoretical. They differ in subject content, (ontology), means of obtaining (epistemology), methods of justification, and criteria of truth (methodology). The study shows that each of the four levels of scientific knowledge cannot be derived from others and cannot be reduced to them. The non-classical approach to the level structure of scientific knowledge developed in the paper allows for a deeper and more specific analysis of the regularities of the functioning and development of real science than it was done by the classical philosophy of science.

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