Key problematizations in the history of sex, love and sexuality.

Authors: Tagirov F.V. Published: 30.10.2019
Published in issue: #5(79)/2019  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2019-5-628  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Philosophy Science  
Keywords: Antiquity, aphrodisia, history, carnival, flesh, sex, fast, Middle Ages, sexuality, hyubris, encratia, eros

Considering the current situation in the field of gender, love and sexuality, we must admit that there is a clash of two opposing trends, one of which turns to greater liberation and emancipation of the erotic, while the other represents its conservative antithesis and assumes the priority of sustainable models of eros organization both at the level of institutional organization and in the field deeply personal, intimate. The most significant points of problematization prevailing in discourses about eros in Antiquity and the Middle Ages are discussed. The analysis of the ancient problematizations of the erotic is built around the categories of hyubris, aphrodisia, encratia and virtus. The present study considers flesh, fasting, and carnival to be the pivot points in the medieval discourse on sex, love, and sexuality. It is shown how ancient man sets the border for hubrisof excessiveness due to the principle of measure assuming both external regulation and requirement of personal restraint, which reflects encratia of the Greeks and virtus of the Romans. In the Middle Ages mayhem of sin, born from the desires of the flesh, opposed to the abstinence of fast, which, in turn, also reaches excessive forms, and carnival hubris is a response to fast hubris. Issues of marriage, status of women, same-sex relations are also touched upon. The theoretical basis of this study are the works of M. Foucault, J. Le Goff and N. Truon, J. Bataille, M. Bakhtin, R. Tannahill, J.-K. Milner, R. Muchemble, E. Vardiman, Yu. b. Rurikov, D. Venner and several other authors. The work is based on the principles of comparative, socio-philosophical, philosophical-historical and historical-philosophical methodology.

[1] Tagirov F.V. Eros, lubov i seksualnost: k razlicheniu problemnogo polya [Eros, love and sexuality: about distinguishing the problem field]. In: Otkryvaya sovremennost zanovo [Opening the modernity again]. Moscow, Peoples’ Friendship University (RUDN University) Publ., 2011, pp. 515–524.
[2] Spengler O. Der Untergang des Abendlandes. Umrisse einer Morphologie der Weltgeschichte. München, Verlag C.H. Beck, 1990, 1249 p. [In Russ.: Spengler O. Zakat Evropy. Ocherki morfologii mirovoy istorii. V 2 tomakh. Tom 2. Vsemirno-istoricheskie perspektivy. Moscow, Mysl Publ., 1998, 606 p.]
[3] Milner J.-C. Constats. Paris, Gallimard Education Publ., 2002 [In Russ.: Milner J.-C. Triplet naslazhdeniya. In: Konstatstsii. St Petersburg, Machina Publ., 2009, pp. 48–91].
[4] Venner D. Histoire et tradition des européennes: 30,000 ans d’identité. Paris, Éditions du Rocher, 2002 [In Russ.: Venner D. Istoriya i traditsiya evropeytsev. 30000 let identichnosti. Moscow, Totenburg Publ., 2018, 346 p.].
[5] Venner D. Un samouraï d’Occident: Le Bréviaire des insoumis. Paris, Pierre-Guillaume de Roux Publ., 2013, 310 p. [ Venner D. Samuray Zapada. Moscow, Totenburg Publ., 2017, 236 p.].
[6] Foucault M. Histoire de la sexualité, tome 2 : L’usage des plaisirs. Paris, Gallimard Publ., 1994 [In Russ.: Foucault M. Istoriya seksualnosti. Tom 2. Ispolzovanie udovolstviy. St. Petersburg, Akademicheskiy proekt Publ., 2004, 432 p.].
[7] Spengler O. Der Untergang des Abendlandes. Umrisse einer Morphologie der Weltgeschichte. München, Verlag C.H. Beck, 1990, 1249 p. [In Russ.: Spengler O. Zakat Evropy. Ocherki morfologii mirovoy istorii. V 2 tomakh. Tom 1. Geshtalt i deystvitelnost. Moscow, Mysl Publ., 1998, 663 p.].
[8] Rurikov Yu.B. Detstvo chelovecheskoy lubvi [Childhood of human love]. In: Filisofiya lubvi. V 2 chastyakh. Ch. 1 [Philosophy of love. In 2 parts. Part 1]. Moscow, Politizdat Publ., 1990, pp. 11–35.
[9] Vardiman E. E. Die Frau in der Antike. Dusseldorf und Wien, Econ Verlag GmbH, 1982 [In Russ.: Vardiman E.E. Zhenshchina v antichnom mire. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1990, 354 p.].
[10] Xenophon. Memoirs of Socrates and the Symposium (The dinner party). Harmondsworth, Penguin Books Publ., 1970 [In Russ.: Xenophon. Pir. Vospominaniya o Sokrate. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1993, pp. 160–196].
[11] Abbott E. A History of Celibacy. Cambridge, Massachusetts, DaCapo Publ., 1999, 496 p. [In Russ.: Abbott E. Istoriya tselibata. Moscow, Eterna Publ., 2016, 856 p.].
[12] Foucault M. Histoire de la sexualité, tome 3 : Le souci de soi. Paris, Gallimard Publ., 1994 [In Russ.: Foucault M. Istoriya seksualnosti. Tom 3. Zabota o sebe. Kiev, Dukh i litera, Grunt Publ.; Moscow, Refl-buk Publ., 1998, 288 p.].
[13] Eliade M. History of Religious Ideas, Volume 2: From Gautama Buddha to the Triumph of Christianity. Chicago, University of Chicago Press Publ., 1982, 580 p. [In Russ.: Eliade M. Istoriya very i religioznykh idey: ot Gautamy Buddy do triumfa khristianstva. Moscow, Akademicheskiy proekt Publ., 2008, 676 p.].
[14] Tannahill R. Sex in history. New York, Stein and Day Publ., 1980, 480 p.
[15] McGinn Thomas A.J. Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome. Oxford, Oxford University Press Publ., 1998, 432 р.
[16] Le Goff J., Truong N. Une histoire du corps au Moyen Âge. Paris, Liana Lévi Publ., 2003, 196 p. [In Russ.: Le Goff J., Truong N. Istoriya tela v srednie veka. Moscow, Tekst Publ., 2008, 189 p.].
[17] Bataille G. L’Histoire de l’érotisme. In: Œuvres completes, VIII. Paris, Gallimard Publ., 1970 [In Russ.: Bataille G. Istoriya erotizma. Moscow, Logos Publ., 2007, 200 p.].
[18] Muchembled R. L’orgasme et l’Occident. Une histoire du plaisir du XVIe siècle à nos jours. Paris, Le Seuil Publ., 2005 [In Russ.: Muchembled R. Orgazm ili Lubovnye utekhi na Zapade. Istoriya naslazhdeniya s XVI veka do nashikh dney. Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie Publ., 2009, 512 p.].
[19] Hartnell J. Medieval Bodies: Life, Death and Art in the Middle Ages. London, Wellcome Collection Kindle Edition Publ., 2018, 352 p. [In Russ.: Hartnell J. Goloe Srednevekovye. Zhizn, smert i iskusstvo v Srednie veka. Moscow, AST Publ., 2018, 320 p.].
[20] Bakhtin M. Tvorchestvo Fransua Rable i narodnaya kultura Srednevekovya i Renessansa [Creative work of Francois Rabelais and folk culture of the middle Ages and Renaissance]. Moscow, Eksmo Publ., 2015, 640 p.
[21] Guénon R. Symboles de la science sacrée. Paris, Gallimard Publ., 1962, 439 p. [In Russ.: Guénon R. Simvoly svyashchennoy nauki. Moscow, Belovodye Publ., 2002, 496 p.].