The paradigms of the methodology of science and methodological culture of a scientist

Authors: Lebedev S.A. Published: 20.06.2017
Published in issue: #7(57)/2017  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2017-7-453  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Philosophy Science  
Keywords: scientific method, methodology of science, methodological culture of a scientist, paradigms of methodology of science, structure of the contemporary methodology of science

The article considers methodological culture of a scientist, its content and conditions of forming. The main paradigms of the methodology of science are reconstructed: monistic, pluralistic and their variants. The principal impossibility of realizing the monistic paradigm of the methodology of science in real science is shown. This is due to two factors: a qualitative variety of objects of scientific knowledge and a structural variety of areas, levels, scientific disciplines and types of scientific knowledge. A critical analysis of the pluralistic paradigm of the methodology of science in its anarchist version (P. Feyerabend) is given. The system-pluralistic model of the methodology of science is substantiated as the most adequate to real science.

[1] Lebedev S.A., Lebedev K.S. Vestnik Tverskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seria: Filosofiya - Tver State University Bulletin. Series: Philosophy, 2015, no. 2, pp. 56-72.
[2] Lebedev S.A. Kurs lektsiy po metodologii nauchnogo poznania [The course of lectures on the methodology of scientific cognition]. Moscow, BMSTU Publ., 2016, 293 p.
[3] Feyerabend P. Izbrannye trudy po metodologii nauki [Selected works on the methodology of science]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1986, 542 p.
[4] Stepin V.S. Filosofiya i metodologiya nauki [Philosophy and methodology of science]. Moscow, Akademicheskiy proekt Publ., 2014, 720 p.
[5] Latour B. Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford New York, Oxford University Press Publ., 2005 [In Russ.: Latour B. Peresborka sotsialnogo. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola ekonomiki Publ., 2014, 384 p.].
[6] Popper K. The logic of scientific discovery. London, Hutchinson & Co. Publ., 1959 [In Russ.: Popper K. Logika i rost nauchnogo znaniya. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1983, 559 p.].