The human structure and essence

Authors: Lebedev S.A., Ionov S.A. Published: 05.11.2021
Published in issue: #5(91)/2021  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2021-5-738  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Philosophy Science  
Keywords: human structure, human essence, multilevel model of a human

The study shows that a complete model of the human structure can and should only be multi-level, taking into account the qualitative difference in the content of various levels of human existence, between which there is no relationship of determination or reduction of some levels to others, but only the relationship of coherence and complementarity. This type of relationship between the elements of any super-complex system can be called “coherent complexity.” It is an alternative to other possible types of relationships between system elements, such as determination and reduction. The study identifies six levels of the “human” ontological system: physicochemical, biological, social, cultural, existential, and spiritual. A similar model develops in relation to understanding the human essence, which is also viewed as a super-complex coherent system. Its various aspects are interconnected not by deterministic or reductionist relations, but only by coherent ones, in which the aspects of the system only complement each other. In the model of the human essence, the following characteristics were identified and described: a reasonable human, a learning human, a political human, a moral human, a spiritual human, a religious human, a producing human, an existential human, an aesthetic human, a loving human. The study emphasizes the fundamental role of such a phenomenon as freedom in the functioning of all essential aspects of a human.

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